There are specific things you should know about when choosing and making use of paints and sealants to your boat. Paints for beauty and protective functions fluctuate significantly according to the material being treated.
Some of the most complex remedies have been devised to counter rusting in metal hulls. In GRP production boats with hulls coated with gelcoat, the only maintenance required outside is occasional polishing above the waterline, and cleaning and anti-fouling below. Anti-foulings are thick paints containing chemical substances poisonous to marine life similar to weed and barnacles. Some leach away leaving a spongy residue which can simply be sanded off, while different newer types are ablating, which means the action of the water wears them away leaving recent toxins. The toxins are primarily natural copper, mercury or tin compounds. Some countries prohibit the use of sure anti-foulings, particularly in enclosed waters, so it is important to check your native legislation.
Fibreglass, if it is to be painted, ought to first be coated with a fibreglass primer. Wood should be sanded smooth and either varnished or primed for a colour coating. Where it is enclosed, wood ought to be handled with a preservative to stop rot. For exposed wood, a varnish containing extremely-violet filters must be used. The best opaque paints for marine use, are the two-pack polyurethanes which are more expensive than enamels, however produce a really hard film. Enamels are easier to apply, are thinned with mineral turpentine or related, and are simpler to touch up. Polyurethanes are thinned with aromatic solvents like xylene and toluen which give off unpleasant fumes, and being -pack, have to be blended in quantities which will cover the required space and used within hours.
Aluminium ought to be washed with dilute phosphoric acid, and then painted with an etch-primer before being painted with a traditional chromate metal primer and then ideally a polyurethane type paint. Galvanized metal ought to be degreased, after which treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to etch a key for the chromate metal primer. Underwater areas, either GRP, timber or metal, ought to first be painted with a coat of epoxy. In the case of GRP hulls, this reduces the likelihood of osmosis in which molecules of water pass by means of the gelcoat and form bubbles. Metal boats need a high quality sandblast before the anti-corrosive system is applied.
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