Why are women living longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so much longer than men today and how does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and we have only incomplete solutions. Although we know that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in women’s longevity more than men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men today, but not in the past, is to be due to the fact that some key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For ابر التخسيس (simply click the following article) example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.



The advantage women had in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries that it is today.

Let’s see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there’s a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

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